Types of Logical Fallacies: Recognizing Faulty Reasoning

Types of Logical Fallacies: Recognizing Faulty Reasoning

Fallacies are mistaken beliefs based on unsound arguments. They derive from reasoning that is logically incorrect, thus undermining an argument’s validity. Fallacies are difficult to classify, due to their variety in application and structure. In the broadest sense possible, fallacies can be divided into two types: formal fallacies and informal fallacies. Let’s take a look at the variations that exist within these categories. Formal Fallacies Formal (or deductive) fallacies occur when the conclusion doesn’t follow the premise. These are often referred …

HOW CIVIL SOCIETY CAN COMBAT MISINFORMATION AND HATE SPEECH WITHOUT MAKING IT WORSE

Stages of the Media Manipulation Life Cycle

By Dr. Joan Donovan The 3 D’s of Disinformation: Detect, Document, and Debunk In the battle to combat misinformation, researchers have offered clear advice for how journalists should cover and debunk it, but we have very provided little guidance for how civil society should counter media manipulation and disinformation campaigns. The lack of attention to civil society responses is a major gap in the research and it’s becoming increasingly clear that the guidance for journalists does not translate easily to …

The Coronavirus Pandemic Is Now a Threat to National Security

After a possible coronavirus exposure, the entire Joint Chiefs of Staff, including General Mark Milley, the principal military adviser to the President, has gone into isolation.Photograph by Drew Angerer / Getty

Just as the White House became an epicenter of the pandemic and congressional negotiations on the ailing economy collapsed, the Pentagon made its own startling announcement on Tuesday. The entire Joint Chiefs of Staff—the highest-ranking officers from the Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, and other services—went into quarantine for two weeks. These are not only commanders who control the world’s mightiest military, run wars, order bombings, and authorize special-operations raids; they are part of the most consistent and sane wing of …

The ‘Complete’ Case Against Donald Trump

The 'Complete' Case Against Donald Trump

The cumulative stain that President Trump has left on the country I love is palpable and undeniable. Racist attacks and hate crimes reached a 16-year high in 2018. The Trump Presidency has seen a rise in white nationalist confidence, some groups even going so far as to voice their support for him (with no blowback from him). And now we have protests in the streets of major cities all over the country. Did Trump invent racism? Of course not. Has Trump fanned the flames whenever possible? Absolutely.